Thursday, 12 July 2012

Accounting Standard 3 -CASH FLOW STATEMENT

Greetings to fellow blog readers......

AS – 3
Cash comprises cash on hand and cash at bank. (Demand Deposits with bank)

Cash Equivalents are
v  Short Term
v  Highly Liquid Investments (Maturity around 3 months)
v  Subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

Cash Flows are inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents.

Cash Flow Statement represents the cash flows during the specified period by operating, investing and financing activities.

Operating Activities are the principal revenue-producing activities of the enterprise and other activities that are not investing activities and financing activities.
1] Cash receipts from sales of goods/services
2] Cash receipts from royalties, fees and other revenue items
3] Cash payments for salaries, wages and rent
4] Cash payment to suppliers for goods
5] Cash payments or refunds of Income Tax unless they can be specifically identified with financing            or investing activities
6] Cash receipts and payments to future contracts, forward contracts when the contracts are held for trading purposes.

Cash from operating activities can be disclosed either by DIRECT METHOD OR BY INDIRECT METHOD.

Investing Activities are the acquisition and disposal of long-term assets and other investments not included in cash equivalents.
1] Cash payments/receipts to acquire/sale of fixed assets including intangible assets
2] Cash payments to acquire shares or interest in joint ventures (other than the cases where instruments are considered as cash equivalents)
3] Cash advances and loans made to third parties (Loan sanctioned by a financial enterprise is operating activity)
4] Dividends and Interest received
5] Cash flows from acquisitions and disposal of subsidiaries

Financing Activities are activities that result in changes in the size and composition of the owners’ capital (including preference share capital in the case of a company) and borrowing of the enterprise.
1] Cash proceeds from issue of shares and debentures
2] Buy back of shares
3] Redemption of Preference shares or debentures
4] Cash repayments of amount borrowed.
5] Dividend and Interest paid

An enterprise should report separately major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments arising from investing and financing activities.
However, cash flows from following activities may be reported on a net basis.
v  Cash receipts and payments on behalf of customers
               For example: Cash collected on behalf of, and paid over to, the owners of properties.
v  Cash flows from items in which turnover is quick, the amounts are large and the maturities are short.
               For example: Purchase and sale of investments
v  For financial enterprise: Cash receipts and payments for the acceptance and repayment of deposits with a fixed maturity date.
v  For financial enterprise: Deposits placed/withdrawn from other financial enterprises
v  For financial enterprise: Cash advances and loans made to customers and the repayment of those advances and loans.

Foreign Currency Cash Flows:

Cash flows arising in foreign currency should be recorded in enterprise’ reporting currency applying the exchange conversion rate existing on the date of cash flow.

The effect of changes in exchange rates of cash and cash equivalents held in foreign currency should be reported as separate part of the reconciliation of the changes in cash and cash equivalents during the period.

Extraordinary Items: These items should be separately shown under respective heads of cash from operating, investing and financing activities.

Investing and financing transactions that do not require the use of cash and cash equivalents should be excluded from a cash flow statement. For Example
A] The conversion of debt to equity
B] Acquisition of an enterprise by means of issue of shares

Other Disclosure:
Components of cash and cash equivalents.
Reconciliation of closing cash and cash equivalents with items of balance sheet.
The amount of significant cash and cash equivalent balances held by the enterprise, which are not available for use by it.

Accounting Standards – 2 VALUATION OF INVENTORY

Greetings to fellow blog readers......

AS – 2


Inventories are assets:

held for sale in ordinary course of business;
in the process of production fro such sale (WIP);
in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services.

However, this standard does not apply to the valuation of following inventories:

(a)    WIP arising under construction contract (Refer AS – 7);
(b)   WIP arising in the ordinary course of business of service providers;
(c)    Shares, debentures and other financial instruments held as stock in trade; and
(d)   Producers’ inventories of livestock, agricultural and forest products, and mineral oils, ores and gases to the extent that they are measured at net realizable value in accordance with well established practices in those industries.

Inventories should be valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value.

The cost of inventories should comprise

(a)    all costs of purchase
(b)   costs of conversion
(c)    other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

The costs of purchase  consist of

(a)    the purchase price
(b)   duties and taxes ( other than those subsequently recoverable by the enterprise from the taxing authorities like CENVAT credit)
(c)    freight inwards and other expenditure directly attributable to the acquisition.

Trade discounts (but not cash discounts), rebates, duty drawbacks and other similar items are deducted in determining the costs of purchase.

The costs of conversion include direct costs and systematic allocation of fixed and variable production overhead.

Allocation of fixed overheads is based on the normal capacity of the production facilities. Normal capacity is the production, expected to be achieved on an average over a number of periods or seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity resulting from planned maintenance.

Under Recovery: Unallocated overheads are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
                              Example: Normal capacity = 20000 units
                                              Production          = 18000 units
                                              Sales                    = 16000 units
                                              Closing Stock      = 2000   units              
                                              Fixed Overheads = Rs. 60000    

                              Then,  Recovery rate = Rs60000/20000 = Rs 3 per unit
                               Fixed Overheads will be bifurcated into three parts:
                               Cost of sales                  : 16000*3 = 48000
                               Closing stock                 : 2000 *3 =   6000                                   
                               Under recovery              :               Rs 6000  ( to be charged to P/L)

(Apparently it seems that fixed cost element in closing stock should be 60000/18000*2000 =Rs 6666.67. but this is wrong as per AS-2)        
Over Recovery: In period of high production, the amount of fixed production overheads is allocated to each unit of production is decreased so that inventories.
                           Example: Normal capacity = 20000 units
                                           Production          = 25000 units
                                           Sales                    = 23000 units
                                           Closing Stock      = 2000   units
                                           Fixed Overheads =  Rs 60000
                           Recovery Rate = Rs 60000/20000 = Rs 3 per unit
                           But, Revised  Recovery rate = Rs 60000/25000  =  Rs. 2.40 per unit

                           Cost of sales                         : 23000*2.4 =  Rs 55200
                           Closing Stock                       : 2000  *2.4 =  Rs.  4800

Joint or by products:
In case of joint or by products, the costs incurred up to the stage of split off should be allocated on a rational and consistent basis. The basis of allocation may be sale value at split off point or sale value at the completion of production. In case of the by products of negligible value or wastes, valuation may be taken at net realizable value. The cost of main product is then joint cost minus net realizable value of by product or waste.

The other costs are also included in the cost of inventory to the extent they contribute in bringing the inventory to its present location and condition.

Interest and other borrowing costs are usually not included in cost of inventory. However, AS-16 recommends the areas where borrowing costs are taken as cost of inventory.

Certain costs are strictly not taken as cost of inventory.
(a)    Abnormal amounts of wasted materials, labour, or other production costs;
(b)   Storage costs, unless those costs are necessary in the production process prior to a further production stage;
(c)    Administrative overheads that do not contribute to bringing the inventories to their present location and condition; and
(d)   Selling and Distribution costs.

Cost Formula:
ð  Specific identification method for determining cost of inventories
Specific identification method means directly linking the cost with specific item of inventories. This method has application in following conditions:
·         In case of purchase of item specifically segregated for specific project and is not ordinarily interchangeable.
·         In case of goods of services produced and segregated for specific project.

ð  Where Specific Identification method is not applicable
The cost of inventories is valued by the following methods;                  
FIFO ( First In First Out) Method
Weighted Average Cost

Cost of inventories in certain conditions:
The following methods may be used for convenience if the results approximate actual cost.
ð  Standard Cost: It takes into account normal level of consumption of material and supplies, labour, efficiency and capacity utilization. It must be regularly reviewed taking into consideration the current condition.
ð  Retail Method: Normally applicable for retail trade
                                            Cost of inventory is determined by reducing the gross margin from the sale
                                            value of inventory.

Net Realisable Value means the estimated selling price in ordinary course of business, at the time of valuation, less estimated cost of completion and estimated cost necessary to make the sale.

Comparison between net realizable value and cost of inventory

The comparison between cost and net realizable value should be made on item-by-item basis. (In some cases, group of items-by-group of item basis)

For Example:
                                       Cost                 NRV               Inventory Value as per AS-2
Item A                            100                  90                    90
Item B                            100                  115                  100
Total                               200                  205                  200 190

Raw material valuation
If the finished goods to which raw material is applied, is sold at profit, RAW MATERIAL is valued at cost irrespective of its NRV level being lower to its costs.

Tuesday, 3 July 2012

Accounting Standard -1Disclosure Of Acounting Policy

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AS-1-Disclosure Of Acounting Policy

          Accounting policies are the specific accounting principles and the methods of applying those principles adopted by an enterprise in the preparation and presentation of financial statements.
  1. All significant accounting policies should be disclosed.
  2. Such disclosure form part of financial statements.
  3. All disclosures should be made at one place.
  4. Specific disclosure for the adoption of fundamental accounting assumptions is not required.
  5.  Disclosure of accounting policies cannot remedy a wrong or inappropriate treatment of the item in the accounts.

        Any change in accounting policies which has a material effect in the current period or which is reasonably expected to have material effect in later periods should be disclosed.
      In the case of a change in accounting policies, which has a material effect in the current period, the amount by which any item in the financial statements is affected by such change should also be disclosed to the extent ascertainable. Where such amount is not ascertainable, the fact should be indicated.

Fundamental Accounting Assumption: (GCA) :
  1. Going Concern
  2. Consistency
  3. Accrual

Major considerations governing the selection of accounting policies:
  • Prudence
  • Substance over form (Logic over Law)
  • Materiality

The following are examples of the areas in which different accounting policies may be adopted by different enterprises:

-                                  Methods of depreciation
-                                  Methods of translation of foreign currency
-                                  Valuation of inventories
-                                  Valuation of investments
-                                  Treatment of retirement benefits
-                                  Treatment of contingent liabilities etc.

Accounting Standards(AS) - An Introduction

Greetings to fellow blog readers........

         Today iam going to share the Accounting Standards, that are the guidelines to the any business to prepare and maintain accounts of their respective companies. For comfortable usage we can say Accounting Standards as (AS) from next post.
      Accounting Standards are the defined accounting policies issued by Government or expert institute. These standards are issued to bring harmonization in follow up of accounting policies.
Presently, Institute of Chartered Accountants of India has issued 29 Accounting Standards as listed below.

AS 1.        Disclosure of Accounting Policies
AS 2.        Valuation of Inventories
AS 3.        Cash Flow Statements
AS 4.        Contingencies and Events Occurring After the Balance Sheet Date
AS 5.        Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in 
                 Accounting Policies
AS 6.        Depreciation Accounting
AS 7.        Construction Contracts
AS 8.        Accounting for Research and Development (Not Applicable now)
AS 9.        Revenue Recognition
AS 10.      Accounting for Fixed Assets
AS 11.      Accounting for the Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates
AS 12.      Accounting for Government Grants
AS 13.      Accounting for Investments
AS 14.      Accounting for Amalgamation
AS 15.      Accounting for Retirement Benefits in the financial Statements of Employers
AS 16.      Borrowing Costs
AS 17.      Segment Reporting
AS 18.      Related Party Disclosure
AS 19.      Leases
AS 20.      Earning Per Share
AS 21.      Consolidated Financial Statements
AS 22.      Accounting for Taxes on Income
AS 23.      Accounting for Investments in Associates in Consolidated Financial Statements
AS 24.      Discontinuing Operations
AS 25.      Interim Financial Reporting
AS 26.      Intangible Assets
AS 27.      Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures
AS 28.      Impairment of Assets
AS 29.      Provisions, Contingent Liabilities & Contingent Assets
Procedure for Issuing Accounting Standards
        Accounting Standard Board (ASB) determines the broad areas in which Accounting Standards need to be formulated.
In the preparation of AS, ASB is assisted by Study Groups.
      ASB also holds discussions with representative of Government, Public Sector Undertakings, Industry and other organizations (ICSI/ICWAI) for ascertaining their views.
        An exposure draft of the proposed standard is prepared and issued for comments by members of ICAI and the public at large.
      After taking into consideration the comments received, the draft of the proposed standard will be finalized by ASB and submitted to the council of the Institute.
       The council of the Institute will consider the final draft of the proposed Standard and If found necessary, modify the same in consultation with ASB. The AS on the relevant subject will then be issued under the authority of the council.
NOTE: Hi Guys, Iam going to explain all the above Accounting Standards one by one in forthcomming posts, Thank You